30
Jun
11

World Heritage List – Romania

UNESCO World Heritage List –

Världsarvslistan – Rumänien

The World Heritage List includes 916 properties forming part of the cultural and natural heritage which the World Heritage Committee considers as having outstanding universal value.

These include 706 cultural, 183 natural and 27 mixed properties in 151 States Parties. As of June 2010, 187 States Parties have ratified the World Heritage Convention.

Cultural

Kyrkor med bysantinska fresker i Moldavien
      

These eight churches of northern Moldavia (Agapia, Arbore, Humor, Moldovita, Putna, Sucevita, Varatec, Voronet) built from the late 15th century to the late 16th century, their external walls covered in fresco paintings, are masterpieces inspired by Byzantine art. They are authentic and particularly well preserved. Far from being mere wall decorations, the paintings form a systematic covering on all the facades and represent complete cycles of religious themes.Their exceptional composition, the elegance of the characters, and the harmony of the colors blend perfectly with the surrounding countryside. The interior and exterior walls of the Church of the Suceviţa Monastery are entirely decorated with mural paintings of the 16th century, and this church is the only one to show a representation of the ladder of St John Climacus.

De dakiska försvarsanläggningarna i Orastiebergen

  Built in the 1st centuries B.C. and A.D. under Dacian rule, these fortresses show an unusual fusion of military and religious architectural techniques and concepts from the classical world and the late European Iron Age. The six defensive works, the nucleus of the Dacian Kingdom, were conquered by the Romans at the beginning of the 2nd century A.D.; their extensive and well-preserved remains stand in spectacular natural surroundings and give a dramatic picture of a vigorous and innovative civilization.

Staden Sighisoaras historiska centrum

Founded by German craftsmen and merchants known as the Saxons of Transylvania, Sighişoara is a fine example of a small, fortified medieval town which played an important strategic and commercial role on the fringes of central Europe for several centuries.

  Hureziklostret


Founded in 1690 by Prince Constantine Brancovan, the monastery of Horezu, in Walachia, is a masterpiece of the ‘Brancovan’ style. It is known for its architectural purity and balance, the richness of its sculptural detail, the treatment of its religious compositions, its votive portraits and its painted decorative works. The school of mural and icon painting established at the monastery in the 18th century was famous throughout the Balkan region.

  Staden Biertan


These Transylvanian villages with their fortified churches provide a vivid picture of the cultural landscape of southern Transylvania. The seven villages inscribed, founded by the Transylvanian Saxons, are characterized by a specific land-use system, settlement pattern and organization of the family farmstead that have been preserved since the late Middle Ages. They are dominated by their fortified churches, which illustrate building styles from the 13th to the 16th century.

Träkyrkorna i Maramuresh

These eight churches are outstanding examples of a range of architectural solutions from different periods and areas. They show the variety of designs and craftsmanship adopted in these narrow, high, timber constructions with their characteristic tall, slim clock towers at the western end of the building, either single- or double-roofed and covered by shingles. As such, they are a particular vernacular expression of the cultural landscape of this mountainous area of northern Romania.

Natural

Donaudeltat

The waters of the Danube, which flow into the Black Sea, form the largest and best preserved of Europe’s deltas. The Danube delta hosts over 300 species of birds as well as 45 freshwater fish species in its numerous lakes and marshes.

Properties submitted on the Tentative List

   Le Monastère de Neamt (1991)

  Important etablissement monastique du Moyen Age, L’un des plus anciens de la Moldavie (fin du XIVe siecle), dont l’eglise principale, placee soU5 le vocable de l’Ascension,(1497), constitue l’exemplaire le plus representatif du style moldave du temps d’Etienne le Grand (1457-1504) dans l’architecture religieuse, remarcable par les solutions planimetriques et spatiales que l’on a trouvees. Plan triconque forme d’un sanctuaire, naos, chambre funeraire, narthex et exonarthex, a systeme de voutement typiquement moldave.A l’exterieur, l’harmonie des decorations et des formes est soutenue et marquee par la toiture fragmentree conformement a la structure interieure du systheme de voutement. Le monastere comprend dans son ensemble une enceinte avec une tour-clocher et un petit village monacal. Des le debut il a ete l’un des foyers de culture les plus importants de la Moldavie, par les scriptoria, l’imprimerie, l’ecole.

   Eglises byzantines et post-byzantines de Curtea de Arges (1991)

La ville de Curtea de Arges, l’ancienne capitale de la Valachie, conserve des importants monuments. Un premier ensemble et constitue par les ruines de la Cour princiere (XIIIe-XVIe siecles) et par l’eglise princiere Saint-Nicolas, elevee entre 1340-1376 en “croix grecque” et conservant a-peu-pres integralement la peinture originaire, dont les qualites artistiques la situent parmi les plus importantes exemples de peinture du XIVe siecle. L’ensemble est complete par le ruines de l’eglise de “Saint Nicoara” (XVe siecle). Le deuxieme objectif, l’eglise de l’ancien monastere d’Arges (1512-1517), decoree en pierre richement sculptee, a un plan triconque, a quatre coupoles, au narthex elargi, servant en meme temps de necropole princiere. Le monument constitue un archetype architectural pour une serie de constructions monastiques, fondations princieres representatives, jusqu’au XVIIIe siecle.

   L’ensemble monumental de Tirgu Jiu (1991)

L’unique ensemble monumental du sculpteur Constantin Brancusi “La voie des Heros” fut realise en 1937 a la memoire des heros trombes pendant la Premiere Guerre Mondiale. L’axe de composition oriente est-ouest contient :

  • la ” Colonne de la reconaissance sans fin”
  • la ” Porte du baiser”
  • la “Table du silence”
  • “l’Alee des chaises”


L’eglise des Saints-Apotres-Pierre-et-Paul, batie en 1927, doit, dans la conception de Brancusi, s’engrener dans l’ensemble de sa composition.

   L’ensemble rupestre de Basarabi (1991)

Ensemble des monuments rupestres situe une ancienne carriere de ” craie du IXe-Xe siecle, amenagee comme etablissement monastique (Xe-XIIe siecle). Une eglise principale avec trois nefs soutenue par des colonnes; une autre eglise avec la division rituelle specifique ortodoxe, couverte d’une coupole semicilindrique, le sanctuaire avec abside semicirculaire couvert d’une semicalotte; deux paraklession, diverses chambres annexes, galleries et chambres funeraires composent l’ensemble. Des representations figuratives chretiennes et d’autres motifs symboliques stylises, incises : dragons qui se tordent, le labyrinthe, l’arbre de la vie, le pigeon, le chevalier, aussi que divers animaux et navires. Inscriptions en plusieurs langues et ecritures grecque, runique, glagolithique, cyrillique – y compris une glosse roumaine du Xe siecle.

   L’église des Trois Hiérarques de Iassy (1991)

L’eglise des Trois Hierarques de Iassy (1639) est un monument unique dans l’architecture roumaine et en general dans celle post-byzantine, alliant la tradition byzantine aux elements caracteristiques de l’art de la Moldavie et de la Valachie.
Elle se distingue par le riche decor sculpte en pierre qui couvre en entier les facades

   Les “coules” de Petite Valachie (1991)

Le nom roumain “coula” emprunte au turc tKula signifie tour),designe un tour-habitation avec trois on meme quatre niveaux, utilise par la grande ou la petite noblesse du pays. Habituellement les coulas sont situees dans les points dominants pour surveilles les passages. Sur des plans carres, avec escalier interiour, des meurtrieres,le dernier etage etant prevue d’un “foisor” (espace ouvert sur deux ou trois cotes, avec des arcatures soutenues de colonnes.

Cula” is a semi-fortified building found in the Oltenia region of Romania with a number of examples located in the historical province of Muntenia. They were originally built as homes for the ruling Boyar class to defend against incursions by the Ottoman Empire from south of the River Danube.

   L’église de Densus (1991)

L’eglise de Densus, elevee au plus tard au XIVe siecle, a une structure de type central avec une tourelle soutenue par quatre colonnes construites par la reutilisation des autels romains. L’eglise se distingue par sa silhouette particulere; la construction incorpore d’une maniere originale des spoliations romaines – colonnes, bouches d’eqout lions funerairs etc. Peinture murale interieure du XVe siecle.

   Le noyau historique de la ville d’Alba Julia (1991)

Ensemble de monuments representatif pour des epoques artistiques differentes, construits a l’interieur du perimetre du vieux camp fortifie romain d’Apulum (debut du IIe siecle), sur l’emplacement duquel l’on fit elever la cite medievale entouree en 1714-1735 par une fortification bastionaire comportant sept bastions et portes decores de sculptures et reliefs. Comprend egalement la Cathedrale catholique Saint-Michel (XIIIe siecle avec des ajouts ulterieurs), le Palais princier qui represente la transformation du XVIe siecle de l’ancien Palais de l’eveche, des differents batiments des XVIIe-XIXe siecles (le Palais Apor, la bibliotheque Bathyaneum etc.) et la Cathedrale orthodoxe de l’Unification (1922).

   Massif du Retezat (1991)

   Pietrosul Rodnei (sommet de montagne) (1991)

   Sinpetru (site paléontologique) (1991)

   Codrul secular Slatiora (forêt séculaire) (1991)

   The Historic Centre of Sibiu and its Ensemble of Squares (2004)

  Sibiu was colonized by Saxon settlers in the mid-12th century. They were invited to Transylvania by the Hungarian King Geza II (1141-1162), in order to defend and administer the kingdom’s border territory. The earliest written records date from 1191. From 1366 onwards the city became known by the Saxon community as Hermannstadt. Although Sibiu is an ancient settlement dating from the Neolithic period, the overall form and shape of the city is medieval. Its evolving lines of strong fortifications, together with its characteristic street pattern, squares and building plots, developed and grew especially following the Tatar invasion of 124-1. Sibiu was the capital of the Saxon settlement in Transylvania. Strategically located, it was its most important fortified town. It was also its administrative, religious and economic centre. At the end of the 15th century the Saxon University was founded, with the leadership based in Sibiu, and from 1543 it became the focus for the introduction of the Lutheran Reformation into Transylvania and the shift away from Catholicism. The plan form and the architecture of Sibiu bear witness to the important political, religious and economic role that the city played for almost six centuries. Of particular note are the three interlocking squares of the upper town (Huet, Kleiner Ring, Grosser Ring), the succession of smaller squares in the lower town (including Fingerlinger and Dragoner), and the many narrow streets, steps and covered passages that link them. The historic centre displays an extensive stock of Gothic, Renaissance, and Baroque architecture, as well as examples of late 19th to early 20th century date. Amongst its key buildings are: St. Mary’s Parish Church, c. 1350; the Altenberger Haus (the old City Hall), 1475-1704; and the Brukenthal Palace, 1778-1788. The plot shapes, layout and organization of the larger merchants’ houses in the upper town, with their large courtyards behind, are also distinctive. The evolution of the city from its initial strategic stronghold protecting a rural settlement to a mercantile and artisan centre and powerful regional capital city is expressed in the important collection of vernacular buildings, to be seen especially in the lower town. The historic centre of Sibiu covers an area of approx. 80 ha. It comprises the whole of the area within the fourth ring of fortification and is situated at the heart of the modern city. .


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