Posts Tagged ‘duo i malmö

06
Sep
12

Jultraditioner

Den förhistoriska midvinterfesten, det så kallade midvinterblotet var en glädje- och offerfest. Den firades i skarven mellan det gamla och nya solåret. Man offrade för att få goda skördar, så man kan kalla den för fruktbarhetsfest. Man åt, drack och offrade olika husdjur till gudarna. Det sägs att även människor offrades. Vår julgris härstammar troligen från dessa fester.

När kristendomen kom till Norden försökte den tidiga kyrkan att förbjuda de hedniska sedvänjorna. De asatroende som blivit kristna firade ofta både på det påbjudna kristna sättet och sitt gamla hedniska. För att inte förlora de nykristna fick kyrkan släppa lite på firandet så det påminde mera om det gamla sättet att fira.

Dagens julfester firas på många olika sätt.

Advent – ankomst

Julen inleds med att vi firar Advent. Det är en förkortning för Adventus Domini, vilket betyder “Herrens ankomst”. Första advent börjar vårt kyrkoår, så har det varit sedan 700-talet.

Adventsstjärnan i våra fönster är som så mycket annat direktimporterat från Tyskland. Seden att hänga en lysande stjärna i fönstret kom till Sverige vid sekelskiftet och blev vanlig i hemmen på 1940-talet. Stjärnan lyste för herdarna på julnatten och sågs även av de tre vise männen. Den ledde de tre vise männen till stallet där Jesusbarnet föddes.

I advent skickar vi jul- och nyårshälsningar till släkt och vänner. Julkorten härstammar från lyckönskningarna som förr delades ut vid nyår. Det första moderna, tryckta julkortet utgavs 1843 i England. I Sverige började julkorten förekomma på 1870-talet. Vanliga blev de först på 1890-talet och då mest i borgerliga kretsar och i städerna. Det var Jenny Nyström som gjorde julkorten populära genom sin produktionstart 1894. Inte förrän ca 1910 blev seden att skicka julkort allmän.

Lucia – helgonet, ljusdrottningen

Lucia var ett sicilianskt helgon som led martyrdöden ca 304 e. kr. Hon firas av den romersk-katolska kyrkan den 13 december. Luciafirandet som vi är vana vid är en säregenhet för Sverige. Det italienska helgonet Lucia har bara namnet gemensamt med vårt firande.

Vår Lucia uppkom på 1500- eller 1600-talet bland protestanterna i Tyskland. Hon kom som en ersättning för det katolska helgonet S:t Nikolaus. Hon föreställde Jesusbarnet och kom med presenter till barnen vid jul. Hon kom i sällskap med en djävulsfigur, som på platt-tyska kallas “Dyvelskater”. I gammalsvenskan blev det “dyvelskatter”, dvs våra moderna lussekatter. Luciaseden följde med tyskarna till Sverige på 1600-talet, men försvann som julsed på 1700-talet. I landskapen kring Vänern knöts seden istället till den 13 december. Den första kända svenska ljusdrottningen sägs ha lussat på ett västgötskt slott 1763.

Den tidens skolgossar (djäknar) passade på att vid skolavslutningen gå omkring och sjunga visor för att samla in pengar inför den kommande terminen. Det kallades för “lussegången”.

Julens fasta började denna dag och det var förbjudet att äta kött under fastan. Fastan varade till julafton. Julgrisen skulle ha slaktats senast på lussenatten. Än idag äter vi fastematen lutfisk, fast numera på julafton. Av all vår moderna julmat är risgrynsgröten och lutfisken de enda rätterna som egentligen har med den religiösa helgen jul att göra.

Ljusstöpningen och julbrygden skulle också vara avklarad och man “smakade” ofta på julölet. Luciafirandet har alltid dragit med sig fester med stor förtäring av alkohol. Lussenatten ansågs vara den längsta på året. Just den 13 december hade redan under medeltiden spelat en viktig roll i svensk tradition. På runstaven markerades dagen med två furubloss och en sax. Den sistnämnda markerar att man nu kunde börja klippa av de långa nätterna.

Julskämt
– Hur går det för Lucia i år?
– Lysande!

Tomasmäss – julfrid

På Tomasdagen infaller vintersolståndet, dvs årets kortaste dag. Dagen är ca sex och en kvarts timme lång.

Julfriden startade på Tomasdagen den 21 december och varade till den sjunde eller 13 januari. Vid brott fördubblades straffet under den tiden. Julfriden gällde också djuren. Julfriden innebar också att arbetsvilan började, julförberedelserna skulle vara avklarade. Tomasdagen var helgdag i vårt land fram till 1772 och kallades tomasmäss. På den gamla runstaven utmärks Tomasdagen med en hand med utsträckta fingrar, samt ett furuträd i kors. Marknad hölls ofta i de större städerna. Numera firas inte tomasmäss.

Julskämt
– Vad gör orkestern den 23:e december?
– De har julstämning.

Julafton

På julaftonen hängde man förr upp vävnader och julmålningar. Särskilt julbrev och kistebrev omnämns. De var enkla folkliga träsnitt i grov skärteknik, men mycket färgglada och de var försedda med en upplysande vers. Dessa förekom mest i södra Sverige och försvann runt 1860.

På golvet lades halm. Rika gårdar bytte halm flera gånger under helgen, i de mindre bemedlade gårdarna fick den ligga kvar till trettonhelgen.

Julträdet skulle pyntas. Det ställdes ofta så att dess ljus syntes utifrån. Julträdet skulle hålla onda makter på avstånd. I slutet av medeltiden fanns det smyckade träd i Sydtyskland och Schweiz. Den första “riktiga” julgranen med ljus fanns i Phalz på 1660-talet. I Sverige omtalas den första julgranen i slottsmiljö runt 1741 och på 1800-talet blev den vanlig bland borgarna i städerna. Inte förrän vid sekelskiftet blev julgranen en vanlig företeelse hos gemene man. Den smyckades då oftast med färggranna smällkarameller av glanspapper och ljus. Ibland användes enar istället för granar. Numera kan en julgran se ut precis hur som helst. Vi smyckar den efter eget tycke.

Julkrubban är en romersk-katolsk sed. I Sverige var det högborgerliga hem som redan på 1800-talet hade krubba. I kyrkorna byggdes julkrubbor från ca 1930. Inte förrän efter 1960-talet blir det vanligt med julkrubbor i hemmen.

Utanför stugan restes julstänger och julkärven sattes upp. Djuren skulle ha det rent och snyggt, och de fick särskilt foder. Till helgens brasor höggs särskilt utvald ved tidigt på morgonen. Först därefter var det dags för gårdens folk att ta sig ett julbad och man bytte till rena festkläder.

Sedan avnjöts all den goda julmaten. Dopp i grytan, risgrynsgröt, lutfisk eller insjöfisk, sylta, ost, smör, bröd och julkorv serverades vanligen. Julskinka och grishuvud fanns bara i de bättre bemedlade hushållen. Öl, brännvin och juldricka tillhörde. Innan man hade läst upp sitt grötrim fick man inte smaka av julgröten. Alla medlemmar i hushållet fick sin egen hög av olika sorters nybakat bröd. En såningskaka fanns också, den sparades till vårsådden. Man dukade inte av julbordet, utan en del mat och dryck skulle stå kvar hela helgen för att gäster skulle kunna ta för sig. Man ville inte att de skulle “bära ut julen”, utan var och en skulle få sitt och tomten likaså. Man bjöd alla som kom, även de fattiga i socknen. Man gick också ut med julmat till fattiga äldre sockenbor.

Efter maten läste far i huset julevangeliet. Om det delades ut julklappar bestod de av praktiska saker så som klädesplagg, hushållssaker etc.

Julklappen härstammar från de nyårsgåvor som gavs redan i antiken. De överfördes senare till julfirandet. Skolornas och kyrkans sed att fira S:t Nikolaus den 6 december med niklaspresenter, är ytterligare en källa till vårt julfirande. Namnet julklapp härstammar från det skämtsamma sätt att överräcka en gåva förr: man smög fram och klappade på dörren, slängde in presenten och sprang därifrån. Klappen bestod av ett vedträ, en grisfot, en halmfigur eller liknande och på den satt en elak vers eller kommentar.

En av våra äldsta julsymboler är bocken. Den härstammar troligen från den bockliknande djävulsfiguren i medeltidens Nikolausspel. Ungdomarnas julfirande förr föregicks av att en yngling klädde ut sig till bock och gick runt i gårdarna. Han följdes av ett sällskap som sjöng en julbocksvisa eller framförde ett enklare skådespel för att få mat och dryck till mellandagarnas ungdomsgille. På tidigt 1800-tal blev julbocken den som i de borgerliga hemmen delade ut julklapparna, alltså en föregångare till vår jultomte. Vår tids mest kända julbock är den i Gävle.

På medeltiden klädde en mansperson ut sig till biskop och delade ut gåvor i skolorna på S:t Nikolausdagen, den sjätte december. I vissa protestantiska länder, bl a Tyskland, motarbetades denna sed av kyrkan och S:t Nikolaus ersattes av Jesusbarnet, “Kinken-Jes” på platt-tyska. Jesusbarnet representerades av en vitklädd flicka – det som sedan blev vår Lucia. På andra håll kom istället “der Weihnachtsmann”, dvs julgubben. På 1800-talets mitt blev denna julgubbe känd i Sverige genom infört julpynt. Man gav den namn efter folktrons tomte. Jenny Nyströms julkort stor betydelse för spridandet av vår nutida figur – jultomten. På 1880-talet började man i städernas borgarfamiljer klä ut sig till tomte och dela ut julklappar.

Numera firar vi julaftonen med mat och julklappar i mängder. Julen har blivit en ren familjehögtid. Man bjuder inte längre in grannar eller bekanta. Kalle Anka har intagit våra julaftnars eftermiddagar, men julbönen besöks också. Vi äter vår julmat tidigt på dagen. Ofta delas klapparna ut när Disneytimmen är över, istället för att som förr, delas ut på kvällen. I vissa hem läses fortfarande julevangeliet, men det är nog mer sällsynt nu för tiden. På många platser i landet kan man fira en s.k. alternativ jul.

Juldagen

På många håll i landet var seden så att både husbonden och drängarna fick frukost på sängen av moran. Karlarna fyllde sina pluntor med brännvin. Detta intogs sedan vid varje lämpligt tillfälle på väg till kyrkan.

På medeltiden firade man tre mässor på juldagen, den sista vid midnatt. Förr hölls julottan klockan fyra eller fem på morgonen. Man åkte släde till kyrkan och höll facklor i händerna. Hästarna smyckades med bl a bjällror. Mindre bemedlade gick till kyrkan. De hade ofta julbloss att lysa väg med. Blossen och facklorna slängdes i en hög utanför kyrkan och gav ett vackert sken. Kyrkan var vackert smyckad och den var full av tända ljus. På hemvägen hade man bråttom och körde i kapp. Den som först nådde sin gård sades få in sin skörd först av alla kommande år.

När man kom hem från julottan höll man sig i stillhet resten av dagen. Att gå i byn sågs inte med blida ögon.

Numera har julaftonens julbön (på eftermiddagen) tagit över julottans religiösa funktion. Midnattsmässan har återupptagits i vissa delar av landet. På juldagen passar vi ofta på att umgås med våra närmaste, vi åker på middag eller kaffe hos släkt och vänner.

Annandag jul

På annandagen började så alla gillen. Man var tidigt uppe för att ta särskilt god hand om hästarna.

Ungdomarna hade ungdomsgillen. Först drog man från gård till gård i ottan och “sjöng Staffan”, dvs man gick utklädd, bar med sig en stjärna och sjöng staffansvisan eller julvisan. Som tack bjöds man på vad huset förmådde. Denna mat sparades och sedan ställde man till gille på kvällen. På vissa håll kallades det att “sjunge för dörr” eller “andas-otta”. Ungdomarna roade sig också med att kasta in halmdockor till varandra. Dessa var ofta utklädda och gjorda så att de anspelade på något som hänt under året.

De vuxna ordnade knytkalas och stordanser. Man passade på att roa sig ordentligt med släkt och vänner. Nu var inte gillena slut när annandagen var över, utan de fortsatte juldagarna fram till knutsdagen.

Annandagen är även idag en festdag då man träffar släkt och vänner.
Mellandagsrean brukar tjuvstarta på morgonen.

Nyårshelgen

År 153 f. kr. flyttades det romerska nyåret till den 1 januari. I kalendern hamnade denna helg först på 500-talet. Helgen firas sedan gammalt som en av jultidens stora fester då helgen ingick i jultolften. Man åt samma mat som på julafton och man gav varandra nyårsgåvor. På nyårsnatten hade man möjlighet att skåda in i framtiden. Man vakade in det nya året och önskade sig något av nymånen. Tolvslaget var fruktat eftersom man trodde att domedagen kunde komma då. Säker var man inte förrän det gått någon timma in på det nya året.

Mycket övertro är förknippat med nyårsnatten. Det betydde lycka om en man var första besökaren på nyårsdagen, olycka om det var en kvinna. Om man fick pengar denna dag skulle man bli rik, men om man lånade ut skulle man bli fattig resten av året.
Att ringa i kyrkklockorna på nyårsnatten är en sed som spridit sig från städerna till landsbygden. På landet brukade man istället skjuta i alla fyra väderstrecken för att skrämma bort allt ont.

Numera skjuter vi raketer istället för att avfyra bössan. Nyårsnatten är fortfarande en festlig och högtidlig natt, men vi är inte lika skrockfulla längre. Vi äter och dricker gott i släkt och vänners sällskap. Många tittar på nyårsringningen och skålar in nya året innan de går ut och skjuter raketer. Andra, som vi, går ut 10 minuter före tolvslaget och skålar sedan med grannar, släkt och vänner medan vi fyrar av de första raketerna.

Fyrverkerier är inte bara trevligt. Många katter, hundar och andra djur far illa av smällarna. Den stund det tar att fyra av raketerna går väl an, men alla dessa smällare som barn och ungdomar fyrar av både under, före och efter helgen, det blir för mycket! Så snälla – låt inte dina barn springa omkring i tid och otid med smällare. De tillhör årets första timme!

Trettondedag jul – Heliga Tre Konungars dag

Denna dag innebar slutet på jultolften. “Knut kör julen ut”. Då firades stjärnans kringbärande. Man gick på tiggarstråt från gård till gård. Stjärnan skulle hållas i ständig rörelse, vilket symboliserade solens gång. Gammal som ung lekte inomhuslekar. Knutsdagen firades till minnet av hertig Knut Lavard som mördades på Knutsdagen 1131.

På 1600-talet flyttades Knutsnamnet från Trettondedagen den 6 januari till den 13 januari. Den kallas numera tjugondag Knut. Natten mellan Knut och Felix slutade julen. Då hade man knutsbal.

I många länder kallas Trettondedagen för Heliga Tre Konungars dag. Det var denna dag de tre vise männen, Kaspar, Melkior och Baltasar, vandrade till det nyfödda Jesusbarnet med sina gåvor. Stjärnan ledde dem till stallet. De tre vise männen var de första icke-judar som tillbad Jesus. Därför räknas Trettondedagen som dagen då vi firar att Jesus blev känd utanför det judiska folket. I konsten avbildas de tre vise ofta som män i olika åldrar och från olika kontinenter. Detta är ett sätt att uttrycka att hela mänskligheten står i tillbedjan inför Jesus.

Idag är det som så mycket annat barnens högtid. När jag var liten gick mina kompisar och jag från hus till hus för att “sopa ut julen”. Vi hade med oss sopkvast och skyffel och fick sopa upp barren som låg kvar. Som tack för arbetet fick vi godis, frukt eller pengar. Numera är det inte lika vanligt att barn sopar ut julen. Där emot dansar de ut julen på olika sätt. Man träffas i någon möteslokal och dansar runt granen, fikar och tomten kommer med en godispåse till barnen. Andra familjer träffas istället hos någon förutbestämd familj i släkten och dansar ut granen där, sk julgransplundring. Då är granen godissmyckad för att barnen ska få plundra den.
Svenska kyrkans mission samlar in missionskollekt denna dag.

23
Jan
11

Why is the violin so hard to play?

  When you pluck a note on a guitar string, there isn’t very much that can go wrong. You may not play the right note at the right time, of course, but a single note will always come out at the expected pitch, and sounding reasonably musical. When a beginner tries to play a violin, things are much more difficult. When a bow is drawn across a string, the result might be a musical note at the desired pitch, but on the other hand it might be an undesirable whistle, screech or graunch. This difference stems from a fundamental distinction between the physics of plucked and bowed strings.

Linear versus nonlinear: plucked versus bowed

A plucked string, like that on a guitar, can be described by linear systems theory. The essential feature of a linear system is that if you can find two different solutions to the governing equations, then the sum of the two is also a solution. In the context of vibration, this idea has a direct physical application.

The first few vibration modes of a vibrating string…

A vibrating object like a stretched string has certain resonance frequencies, each associated with a particular pattern of vibration called a vibration mode. The corresponding resonance frequencies are the “fundamental” and “harmonics” of the note to which the string is tuned. If the string is set into vibration in the shape of one of these modes it will continue to vibrate in this shape at the corresponding resonance frequency, with an amplitude which gradually dies away as the energy is dissipated into sound and heat.

… and a string vibrating in all three modes at once

Now if the string is vibrated in a way that involves several of the mode shapes at once, then the principle of linearity comes into play. Each mode simply goes its own way, vibrating at its particular resonance frequency, and the total sound is the sum of the contributions from these separate modes  (read more). The guitar player can vary the mixture of amplitudes of the various modes, by plucking at different points on the string or using a different plectrum, but the set of resonance frequencies is always the same. In musical terms, the pitch of the note is always the same but the tonal quality can be adjusted.

A bowed string is different. A note on a violin can be sustained for as long as your bow-stroke lasts, with a steady amplitude. Although energy is being dissipated into sound and heat, somehow the bow is supplying additional energy at exactly the right rate to compensate. This is one identifying sign of a non-linear system, for which the idea of adding contributions from different vibration modes cannot be applied in the simple way described above. The theory of such systems is always more intricate, and there is scope for very complicated outcomes and chaotic behaviour (read more). The range of good and bad noises which can be made on a violin string are examples of these complicated outcomes. The same general comments apply equally well to other musical instrument capable of a sustained tone such as the woodwind and brass instruments.

The motion of a bowed string

The string appears to vibrate in a parabola-like shape…

So how does a violin string vibrate? This question was first answered by Hermann von Helmholtz 140 years ago. When a violin is played in a normal way to produce a conventionally acceptable sound, the string can be seen to vibrate. To the naked eye, the string appears to move back and forth in a parabola-like shape, looking rather like the first mode of free vibration of a stretched elastic string.

… but it actually moves in a V-shape.

However, upon closer inspection, Helmholtz observed that it moved in a very unexpected way: the string actually moves in a “V”-shape, i.e. the string gets divided into two straight portions which meet at a sharp corner. The fact that we see a gently curving (parabola-like) outline to the string’s motion with the naked eye is because this sharp corner moves back and forth along this curve. Hence we only normally see the “envelope”, or outline, of the motion of the string.

This motion, called Helmhotz motion is illustrated in this animation:

Helmholtz motion

The vertex of the V, called the Helmholtz corner, travels back and forth along the string. Each time this Helmholtz corner passes the bow, it triggers a transition between sticking and sliding friction: while the corner travels from bow to finger and back, the string sticks to the bow and is dragged along with it; then the string slips along the bow hairs (travelling in the opposite direction to the bow) while the corner travels to the bridge and back. The alternation between the two kinds of friction supplies the non-linear element to the system. (Find out how to observe the Helmholtz motion for yourself.)

If the violinist doesn’t press hard enough with the bow, then instead of Helmholtz motion the string may move as shown here:

Double slipping motion

There are now two travelling corners on the string, and there are two episodes of slipping per cycle of the vibration. The result is a note at the same pitch as the Helmholtz motion, but with a different waveform and a different sound. For whatever historical reason, this sound is not regarded as acceptable, at least by Western classical violinists. Your violin teacher is likely to dismiss it as “surface sound”, and tell you to practise more until you learn not to do it. The switch from Helmholtz motion to this double-slipping motion sets a minimum acceptable level to the bow force, the force with which the bow is pressed against the string.

There is also a maximum acceptable bow force. If the bow is pressed too hard, instead of a musical note the violin may produce a raucous “graunch” noise. The vibration of the string is no longer regular, but switches to a chaotic pattern. Needless to say, this sound is also disapproved of by violin teachers.

But bow force is not enough

The conditions for minimum and maximum bow force can tell us something interesting about the difficulty of playing the violin. When a simple analysis is done of these two conditions, it turns out that they both depend, among other things, on the position of the bow on the string. Suppose the length of the string is , and that the bow is applied a distance from the bridge, where is usually a rather small number for normal violin playing. Then it can be shown that the maximum bow force is proportional to , while the minimum bow force is proportional to . These two conditions can be combined in a graphical form first suggested by John Schelleng in the 1960s. It is most convenient to plot the bow force and the bow position on logarithmic scales, so that the two power-law relations become straight lines. The diagram then looks schematically like this:

The Schelleng diagram of bow force versus position for a long steady bow stroke

The shaded wedge shows the region within which Helmholtz motion can be achieved. Outside that region, the string does one or other of the undesirable things described above. It is immediately clear that it is easier to produce Helmholtz motion if the bow is away from the bridge: if the bow is too close to the bridge, the two force limits converge and it might not be possible to achieve Helmholtz motion at all.

But the picture reveals something else which is relevant to beginners on the violin. When you first try to play, you have many different things to think about: controlling the bow to touch the correct string, adjusting your left hand to finger the correct note, and so on. It can therefore happen that a beginner does not pay much attention to the position of the bow on the string, . In other words, a beginner may move randomly along a more-or-less horizontal line in the Schelleng diagram. The shape of the Helmholtz region in the diagram immediately reveals that this could lead to falling below the minimum force line or rising above the maximum force line, even without the bow force being varied.

Playability

Of course, this is not the whole story about why the violin takes such a lot of practice in order to learn to play it well. The Schelleng diagram really only tells us about the possibility of obtaining Helmholtz motion during a long, steady bow-stroke.

But violinists don’t just want to play long, steady bow strokes. For musical purposes a wide variety of different bowing gestures are used, such as martelé (hammered bowing with a sudden release) and spiccato (rapid detached notes with the bow bouncing off the strings). A more advanced player will be interested in questions like “If I perform such-and-such a bow-stroke, will I get a Helmholtz motion? How long will it take to become established?”. The second question is particularly important, because there is usually a transient period of non-regular motion of the string which may make the start of the note sound scratchy. A good bow gesture will minimise the length of this transient period, and establish Helmholtz motion quickly to give a crisp-sounding note.

This leads to the idea of playability of an instrument. Everyone knows that some violins are a great deal more valuable than others. Why does this happen, when all normal violins appear to be very similar? One aspect of this is “beauty of sound” from the instrument, which is very difficult to address in scientific terms because you first have to find out what a listener means by beautiful sound. However, if you watch a violinist trying out instruments, you may hear comments like “I don’t really like the sound of this one, but it is very easy to play”, or “This one sounds good but it is very slow to speak”. Players are not only interested in sound quality, whatever that may mean precisely, but they are also interested in ease of playing – the playability of the instrument. If one violin is more accommodating than another, in terms of producing Helmholtz motion more reliably or faster, then that violin is likely to be preferred by a player.

Virtual violins

Unlike beauty of sound, this issue of playability lends itself to scientific investigation using mathematical models of a bowed violin string. Over the last 30 years increasingly sophisticated models have been developed. These models are too complicated to solve by pencil and paper mathematical methods, but they can be used to produce computer simulations of how a string on a particular violin will respond to a certain bow gesture. The models can explain a lot of the complicated things which a violin string can do, and they are beginning to be good enough to use to explore design questions: how could the design of a string, or bow, or violin body, be modified to improve the playability?

In a curiously circular way these theoretical models are also being used directly to make music. As computers have got faster it has become possible to run increasingly sophisticated simulation models in real time, to make “virtual musical instruments”, where a mathematical model of an acoustic instrument is used as the basis of an electronic instrument (read more). Some of the most expensive musical synthesiser systems use this approach, in what is called physical modelling synthesis.

Considering the complicated way in which a bowed violin string vibrates, it is not surprising that the violin is a difficult instrument to learn. There is a fine line between achieving Helmholtz motion and creating unacceptable surface and raucous sounds, whether you are just learning to play or are tackling the more advanced bowing techniques. But there is hope for those who have never learnt play the real thing: mathematical models of the physics of a bowed string may allow you to play a virtual violin after all.

About the authors

After a first degree in mathematics at Cambridge, Jim Woodhouse did a PhD on the acoustics of the violin, in the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics at Cambridge (this work being inspired by a hobby interest in building instruments). He then worked for an engineering consultancy firm for a few years, on a variety of problems in structural vibration, before joining the Engineering Department of the University (in 1985) as Lecturer, then later Reader and Professor. His research interests all involve vibration, and musical instruments have continued to form a major part.

Paul Galluzzo studied engineering as an undergraduate at Cambridge University, specializing in fluid dynamics. He is also a keen violinist, with vast experience performing in various countries. Pooling these engineering and musical backgrounds, he subsequently did a PhD on the acoustics of the violin at Cambridge University, specializing in the mechanics of bowed strings. He currently works for an engineering consultancy firm, in various fields involving mechanics and fluid dynamics, and is also involved with work in physiology and electrochemistry. He was recently elected to a Fellowship of Trinity College, Cambridge.

källa: http://plus.maths.org/

15
Jan
11

Musikal Opera Operett Repertoar

Berlin – There’s No Business Like Show Business (Annie Get Your Gun)
Berlin – They Say It`s Wonderful  (Annie Get Your Gun)
Bizet – Habanera ur Carmen (foto: Georges Bizet)
Bizet – Toreador Song (Carmen)
Delibes – Blomsterduetten (Flower Duet) from Lakmé
Donizetti – Una Furtiva Lagrima ur Kärleksdrycken (foto: Gaetano Donizetti)
Chatjaturjan – Sabel dance / Sabre dance from ”Gayaneh”
Chatjaturjan – Adagio „Spartacus“ balett (Onedinlinjen TV- serie)
Kalman – O La La! That`s the way I am (The Gypsy Princess)
Kalman – Komm Zigani (Countess Maritza / Grevinnan Maritza)
Kalman – Komm mit nach Varasdin (Countess Maritza / Grevinnan Maritza)
Lehar – Potpurri operett (foto: Franz Lehar)
Lehar  – Wer hat die Leibe uns ins Herz gesenkt (Leendets Land)
Leigh – The impossible dream (backing track av George “Misu” Ilie)
Loeve/Lerner – I could have danced all night (My Fair Lady)
Loeve/Lerner – On the street where you live ( My Fair Lady)
Loeve/Lerner – Get Me to the Church on Time (My Fair Lady)
Mascagni – Intermezzo ur Cavalleria rusticana   (foto: Pietro Mascagni)
Mozart – Ach ich fühl’s (Pamina from Die Zauberflöte)
Mozart – Der Hölle Rache kocht in meinem Herzen (Die Zauberflöte)
Mozart – Voi Che Sapete  ur Figaros bröllop (Le nozze di Figaro)
Offenbach –  Can-can ur Orfeus i underjorden  (foto: Jacques Offenbach)
Offenbach –  Barcarolle ur Hoffmanns äventyr
Porter – Wunderbar ur Kiss Me, Kate  (foto: Cole Porter)
Puccini – O mio babbino caro ur Gianni Schicchi
Puccini – Nessun Dorma ur Turandot  (foto: Giacomo Puccini)
Rodgers / Hammerstein II – Oh what a beautiful morning (Oklahoma)
Rodgers / Hammerstein II – Sound of Music 1959 (ur Sound of Music)
Rodgers / Hammerstein II – My Favorite Things (ur Sound of Music)
Saint-Saëns – Mon coeur s`ouvre a ta voix (Samson & Delilah)
Strauss Johann, d.y. – Wiener Blut (vals), op. 354 (ur Wienerblod)
Suppé –  Boccaccio-Marsch (ur Boccaccio operett)

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14
Jan
11

Film/TV Musik Repertoar

Adams  Oleta – Easier to say goodbye

Adams Johnny – There is allways one more time

Albert  Morris – Feelings

Anka  Paul – My way (J. Revaux)

Auric Georges – Where Is Your Heart  ur Moulin Rouge (foto: Zsa Zsa Gabor)

Becaud Gilbert – What now my love (Et maintenant)

Benson George – Masquerade

Bixio / Cherubini – Mamma

Bixio / Cherubini – Jag Vill Ha En Gondol (foto: Zarah Leander)

Bock Jerry/ Sheldon Harnick – If I Were a Rich Man ur Fiddler on the Roof

Boulangér G.  – The mail’s wagon

Boulangér G.   – Avant de mourir

Boulangér G.  – Valse pizzicato

Carlberg Sten / Eric Sandström – Sommar, sommar, sommar 1951

Carlos Eleta Almaran – Historia De Un Amor

Michael Carr / Paul Lambrecht – The Lonely Ballerina

Chaplin C. – This is my song ur The Countess From Hong Kong (foto: Sofia Loren)

Capurro/Di Capua – O sole mio

Dalla Lucio – Caruso (foto: Luciano Pavarotti)

trad. – Dans Espagnol

Dato Xujadze – Hohbis kelivit lamazi

D.Day– Que sera, sera ur The man who knew to much – Hitchock (foto: Doris Day)

Medley (Farmors Hambo & Fermens Polska)

Dinicu G – Hora staccato

DiLazzaro Bruno – Chitarra Romano

Diamond / Becaud – September morn

Djolei, Djolei

Du gamla, du fria (Sveriges nationalsång)

Gade Jacob – Tango Jalousie

Gardel Carlos – Por Una Cabeza ur En Kvinnans Doft (foto: Al Pacino)

Gillar / Denza – Tarantella napoletana / Funiculi-la

Grekisk Medley (Zorba – Mikis Theodorakis, osv)

Grusin Dave – The Singleman Party Foxtrot ur Mandomsprovet

Hamlisch M. – Memories ur The way we were (foto: Barbara Streisand)

Jimmy Van Heusen – Love and marriage (1955) TV show  “Our Town”

Himmelstrand Peter- Det börjar verka kärlek banne mej

Ilie G.(arr.) – Happy birthday

Ionescó Jean – Claro de luna

John Elton – Can you feel the love tonight (The Lion King)

Jones Tom – Without you (“backing track” av George “Misu” Ilie)

Kaempfert Bert – Stranger in the night

Kaempfert Bert – Spanish eyes

Kai Gullmar – SWING IT, MAGISTERN

Kander  J. – Wilkommen ur Cabaret (foto: Liza Minnelli)

Kander  J. – Cabaret (Cabaret)

Kander  J.  – New York, New York (New York, New York)

Lai Francis – Love story Theme

Leo Caerts – I viva espana

Livingstone J. – Mona Lisa (foto: Mona Lisa)

Jean Lenoir – Parlez moi d’amour

Lundblad Peter – Ta mej till havet

Marchetti Fermo Dante – Fascination

Mariano Camargo – Curumin

Mancini Henry – Elegant

Mancini Henry – Crazy world (voice: Julie Andrews)

Mancini Henry – Medley (from Victor / Victoria – Enter Leclou & A Sub For Lovers)

Mancini Henry – Meegie´s theme

Mancini Henry – Something For Sellers (foto: The Pink Panther)

Mancini Henry – Softly

Summer in Gstaad ur filmen  “The Return of The Pink  Panther”

Manzanero Armando – Somos Novios (It’s Impossible) – Perry Como

Medley vals jazz (The Last Waltz & Lara`s Theam – M.Jarre)

Narro Pascual Marquina – Espana Caní (Gipsy Spain)

Norlén Håkan – Visa vid midsommartid

Piazzolla – Adios Nonino

Piazzolla – den svidande vackra ”Oblivion” filmen ”Henrik IV”

Ponce Manuel –  Estrellita (My Little Star)

Predescó Nicola – Vals d’Artiste

Putman – Green,green grass of home (foto: Tom Jones)

Rempfler Josef – Gruss Vo De Notkersegg (tysk marsch)

Renis / Newell – Never, never

Richie Lionel- Endless love

Riedel Georg / Astrid Lindgren – Idas Sommarvisa

Rodriguez G. – La Cumparsita

Ruiz Gabriel – Amor, amor, amor

Schifrin Lalo – Mannix Theme

Taube Evert – Älskliga blommor små

Taube Evert  – Blå anemonerna (Pierina)

Owe Thörnqvist – Rumba i Engelska parken

Vikingarna – Tre Röda Rosor

Vikingarna – Får Jag Lov

Vikingarna – Tack och Farväl

Warren H.- That`s amore (foto: Dean Martin)

Webber A.L.- Pié Jesu

White Maurice – Written in the stone

White Maurice – Sing A Song (Take Six)

White Berry – Can`t Get Enough (foto: Berry White)

video Williams John – Schindler’s List – Theme

Young/Ilie – Vals potpurri ( Around the world in eighty days)

Yradier Sebastián – La Paloma

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14
Jan
11

Jazz Standards Repertoar

Arlen / Harburg – Over the rainbow (foto: Judy Garland)
Arlene / Koehler – I´ve got the world on a string
Brodszky Nicholas – Be My Love (The Toast Of New Orleans)
N.H.Brown / Arthur Freed – Singin`in the rain (Singin`in the rain)
Caldwell B. / R.Peterson  – What you won’t do for love
Camilo Michel – Why not
Chaplin Charlie – Smile ur Moderna tider (foto: Charlie Chaplin)
Culbertson Brian – Com On Up
De Paul / Ray – You don’t know what love is
Gene De Paul – Teach Me Tonight
Distel Sascha – The Good Life (foto: Tony Bennett)
Donaldson Walter – My baby just cares for me  ( Whoopee 1929)
Fatburger – Spice
Gershwin, George – Love is here to stay (foto: George Gershwin)
Gershwin, George -They can’t take that away from me
Mack Gordon /Harry Warren – At last
Grusin Dave – The Singleman Party Foxtrot (The Graduate)
Grusin Dave – Bossa Baroque
Jimmy Van Heusen – Come Fly With Me
Jimmy Van Heusen – Love and marriage
Horn Shirley – Here’s to life
Ilie G. – Poco de Tumbao
Ilie G. – Touch of jazz
Ilie G. – Here We Are


Ilie G. – Between too worlds
Jarreau Al – Roof garden
Jarreau Al – So good
Jarreau Al – Cold Duck
Jobim  Antonio Carlos –  Desafinado
Jobim  Antonio Carlos –  Meditation
Jobim –  Medley Brazil ( One note samba / The girl from Ipanema)
Jobim  Antonio Carlos – The girl from Ipanema
Jobim  Antonio Carlos – Wave
James P. Johnson / Cecil Macklin – Charleston
Kander  J. – New York, New York (foto: Frank Sinatra)
Kosma J. – Falling Leaves
Kosma J. – Autumn Leaves (latin variant)
Lyle Bobby – On the spot
Lyle Bobby – Bijou
Lowe Al. – Larry`s theme
Mancini Henry – Something For Sellers (foto: Peter Sellers)
Mercer J. – I wanna be around
McCartney Paul – Yesterday (foto: Paul McCartney)
Mandel Johnny – The Shadow of Your Smile (The Sandpiper)
Myrow/Gordon – You make me feel so young
Parish / Carmichael – Stardust (foto: Nat King Cole och Ella Fitzgerald)
Ritenour Lee – Malibu
Ritenour Lee – 101 Eastbound
Simon / Bernier  – Poinciana
Tavaglione S. – Kenya Dig
Weckl Dave – Island Magic
Wyche Sidney – OK,You Win
G.Weiss / G.Douglas – What a wonderful world
(foto: Louis “Satchmo” Armstrong)

Velasquez Consuelo – Besame mucho
Zawinu Joe – Birdland

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13
Jan
11

Klassisk Repertoar

Albeniz  – Tango
Albinoni – Adagio
Alfven – Polka Från Roslagen
Bach – Air on the G string ( ur Orkestersvit nr.3 i D )
Bach – Prelude (foto: J.S.Bach)
Bach – Dubbelkonsert i d-moll för två violiner – Sats II
Bach – Nu Grönskar Det ur Bondekantaten
Bartok – Rumänska Folkdanser (1;2 )
Beethoven – Minuet in G, No.2 (foto: L. van Beethoven)
Brahms – Hungarian dance no.6
Brahms – Vals no.15
Chabrier – Espana
Chopin – Nocturne op.9 no.2
Porumbescu – Balada
Dvorjak – Humoresque
Enescó – Rhapsody in A-dur ( moment)
Fibish – Poem
Gounod/Bach – Ave Maria
Grieg – Solveigs sång ur Peer Gynt svit nr 2 Op 55 (foto: E.grieg)
Haydn – Variationer ur Kejsarkvartetten Op.76, Nr.3 “Emperor”  (foto: J.Haydn)
Kreisler – Schön Rosmarin
Kreisler – Caprice Viennois
Lanner – Neue Wiener Ländler, Op.1
Lehár – Guld och Silver
Leoncavallo – Mattinata
Marcello – Adagio
Mendelssohn –Bartholdy  – Spring Song
Monti – Czardas
Mozart – Piano konsert no.21 ”Elvira Madigan”- Romanza (foto: W.A.Mozart)
Mozart – Rondo Alla Turca (Turkisk Marsch)
Saint-Saëns – Le Cygne/Svanen/ The Swan (Djurens karneval)
Sarasate – ZigeunerWeisen
Sarasate – Romanza andaluza
Schubert – Ave Maria  (foto: F.Schubert)
Schumann – Reverie
Sieczynski – Wien, Wien, nur du allein
J. Strauss  d y – Voices of spring
J. Strauss d y- Rosen aus dem Süden (Roses from the South)
J. Strauss d.ä – Salon – Polka, Op.161
J. Strauss d.ä – Radetzkymarsch
Vivaldi –The 4 seasons -Spring satsI (foto: A.Vivaldi)
Vivaldi–The 4 seasons-Winter satsI
Vivaldi – The 4 seasons-Winter satsII
Waldteufel – Skridskoåkarna (The Skaters Waltz)

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06
Dec
10

Stradivarius

  Stradivarius violins: chronological order

new Read more:  Impressive Swimming Pool: Replica of a Stradivarius Violin

breakingnews Stolen Stradivarius sells for £1.38m

December 2013 

The stolen Stradivarius violin that was taken from Euston station in 2010 has sold for £1.38million at auction.
It belonged to London-based violinist Min-Jin Kim. The instrument was recovered three years later by police in the Midlands.
Made in Cremona in Italy in 1696 by Antonio Stradivarius, it is one of an estimated 600 remaining instruments made by him.
The violin sold by the auction house Tarisio. Jason Price from Tarisio and musician Hannah Tarley explained why the violin is so special.

  Not a Stradivarius after all
A violin owned by the Finnish Cultural Foundation, thought to be the creation of Antonio Stradivari, has been found to be the work of another, lesser esteemed craftsman, Girolamo Amati. The reassignment of creator means that the estimated value of the instrument has fallen by at least half (more…

    David Edwards “miniature  Stradivarius” (more…)

  2011, A well-preserved Stradivarius violin has been sold in an online auction for £9.8m ($15.9m) to raise money for disaster relief in Japan.

The violin was made in 1721 and is known as the Lady Blunt after Lord Byron’s granddaughter Lady Anne Blunt who owned it for 30 years. It was sold by a music foundation in Japan for victims of the earthquake and tsunami in March.

The price is more than four times the previous record for a Stradivarius. Proceeds will go to the Nippon Foundation’s Northeastern Japan Earthquake and Tsunami Relief Fund.
The violin was offered for sale by the Nippon Music Foundation, owner of some of the world’s finest Stradivari and Guarneri instruments.

8 April 2011: Man jailed for Stradivarius violin theft at Euston

A man has been jailed for four-and-a-half years for stealing a £1.2m Stradivarius violin at Euston station.
John Michael Maughan, 30, of no fixed address, and two boys, aged 15 and 16, took the instrument from a Korean-born classical musician, Min-Jin Kym. The 16-year-old was detained for 10 months. The younger boy will be sentenced at a later date. Maughan and the boys, from Tottenham, admitted the theft at Blackfriars Crown Court in March.

The case containing the 1696 violin, a £62,000 Peccatte bow and another bow worth £5,000, were taken on 29 November 2010 when their 32-year-old owner stopped to eat at a cafe outside the central London station. They have not been recovered (more…)

   £1.2m Stradivarius stolen as violin star buys a sandwich

A violin worth more than £1million was stolen from a brilliant musician when she stopped for a £2.95 sandwich. Internationally acclaimed violinist Min-Jin Kym, 32, was on her way to catch a train when her Stradivarius, which is more than 300 years old, was stolen by a gang of three opportunist thieves targeting passengers at Euston station in London. The instrument was in a black case which also contained two valuable bows.One of only 450 in the world, it will prove difficult to sell as dealers would immediately recognise its unique label and markings (more…)

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Stradivarius violins

Ever wondered where in the world all of these priceless Stradivarius violins are located? Well now you know (sort of). Some of the whereabouts of Strad instruments is unknown, but here are the ones that we do know about:

ex-Back 1666
O: Royal Academy of Music
N&T: Currently displayed as part of Royal Academy’s York Gate Collection

Dubois 1667
O: Canimex Foundation
N&T: On loan to Alexandre da Costa

Aranyi 1667
O: Francis Aranyi (collector)
N&T: Sold at Sotheby’s London on November 12, 1986

ex-Captain Saville 1667
O: Jean-Baptiste Vuillaume; Captain Saville (1901-1907)

Amatese 1668
N&T: Though listed in many reference books as one of Stradivari’s earliest instruments, the modern consensus is that it is actually not a Stradivarius violin. It was sold Sotheby’s New York on February 3, 1982 as “an interesting violin.”

Oistrakh 1671
O: David Oistrakh
N&T: Stolen from the Museum of Musical Culture in Russia in May 1996 but recovered in 2001.

Sellière 1672
O: Charles IV of Spain

Spanish 1677
O: Finnish Cultural Foundation
N&T: On loan to Elina Vähälä

Hellier 1679
O: Sir Samuel Hellier
N&T: Held by the Smithsonian Institution

Paganini-Desaint 1680
O: Nippon Music Foundation; The collection of Mr & Mrs Rin Kei Mei
N&T: This violin along with the Paganini-Comte Cozio di Salabue violin of 1727, the Paganini-Mendelssohn viola 1731, and Paganini-Ladenburg cello of 1736, compose a group of instruments referred to as the Paganini Quartet; on loan to Kikuei Ikeda of the Tokyo String Quartet

Paganini-Desaint 1681
O: Reynier or Comte de Chesnais
N&T: Owned in 1949 by Lyon & Healey. Previously owned by Napoleon III, Leon Reynier and le Comte de Chesnais.

Fleming 1681

Bucher 1683
O: Josef Gingold
N&T: On loan to Judith Ingolfsson, a 26-year-old violinist from Iceland, who won the gold medal at the International Violin Competition of Indianapolis in 1998.

Cipriani Potter 1683


Cobbett; ex-Holloway 1683
N&T: On loan to Sejong brokered by the Stradivari Society

ex-Croall 1684
O: WestLB

ex-Elphinstone 1684

ex-Arma Senkrah 1685

ex-Castelbarco 1685

Goddard 1686
O: Miss Goddard; Antonio Fortunato

Ole Bull 1687
O: Ole Bull (1844);  Dr. Herbert Axelrod (1985-1997)
N&T: Donated to the Smithsonian Institution in 1997 by Herbert R. Axelrod. Now part of the Axelrod quartet.

Mercur-Avery 1687
O: 1688 The collection of Mr & Mrs Rin Kei Mei
N&T: On loan to Jonathan Carney, concertmaster of the Baltimore Symphony Orchestra since 2002

Auer 1689
N&T: On loan to Vadim Gluzman brokered by the Stradivari Society

Arditi 1689
O: Dextra musica AS, Norway
N&T: On loan to Elise Båtnes, concertmaster, Oslo Philharmonic

Baumgartner1689
O: Canada Council for the Arts
N&T: On loan to Judy Kang

Spanish I 1689
O: Patrimonio Nacional, Palacio Real, Madrid, Spain
N&T: date range 1687-1689; part of a duo of violins (Spanish I and II) referred to as los Decorados, and los Palatinos; also collectively known as del Cuarteto Real (The Royal Quartet) when included with the Spanish Court viola (1696) and cello (1694).

Spanish II 1689
O: Patrimonio Nacional, Palacio Real, Madrid, Spain
N&T: date range 1687-1689; part of a duo of violins (Spanish I and II) referred to as los Decorados, and los Palatinos; also collectively known as del Cuarteto Real (The Royal Quartet) when included with the Spanish Court viola (1696) and cello (1694).

Bingham 1690

Bennett 1692
O: Winterthur-Versicherungen
N&T: On loan to Hanna Weinmeister

Falmouth 1692
N&T: On loan to Leonidas Kavakos

Gould 1693
O: Metropolitan Museum of Art
N&T: Bequeathed by George Gould to the Metropolitan Museum in 1955

Harrison 1693
O: Richard Harrison; Henry Hottinger; Kyung-wha Chung
N&T: in the collection of the National Music Museum

Baillot-Pommerau 1694
N&T: Formerly owned by Arthur Catterall, then by Alfredo Campoli

Rutson 1694
O: Royal Academy of Music
N&T: on loan to Clio Gould

Fetzer 1695

Fetzer 1697
O: Edvin Marton
N&T: Dima Bilan, together with Evgeni Plushenko, and Edvin Marton playing his Stradivarius, won the Eurovision Song Contest 2008

Ex-Napoleon/Molitor Stradivarius 1697

Ms.Meyers recently acquired the Ex-Napoleon/Molitor Stradivarius dated 1697. The violin belonged to one of France’s legendary beauties, Madame Juliette Recamier, and then passed to Count Joseph Molitor, a General in Napoleon’s Army. The violin also passed through Napoleon Bonaparte’s hands-you can read about its provenance here. Ms.Meyers also owns the “Royal Spanish” made in 1730 by the legendary Italian maker Antonio Stradivari (1644 –1737). The “Royal Spanish” earned its name because it previously belonged to the King of Spain.

October 14, 2010, a 1697 Stradivarius violin known as ‘The Molitor’ was sold online by Tarisio Auctions for a world-record price of $3,600,000 to renowned concert violinist Anne Akiko Meyers. The price is the highest on record for any musical instrument sold at auction.

Cabriac 1698

Baron Knoop 1698
N&T: One of eleven Stradivari violins associated with Baron Johann Knoop

Joachim 1698
O: Royal Academy of Music

Duc de Camposelice 1699
O: unknown

Lady Tennant; Lafont 1699
O: Charles Phillipe Lafont;
N&T: on loan to Xiang Gao brokered by the Stradivari Society; sold at Christie’s auction US$2.032 million, April 2005 Marguerite Agaranthe Tennant

Longuet 1699

Countess Polignac 1699
N&T: On loan to Gil Shaham.

Castelbarco 1699
O: Library of Congress
N&T: Presented by Gertrude Clarke Whittall

Kustendyke 1699
O: Royal Academy of Music

Crespi 1699
O: Royal Academy of Music

The Penny 1700
O: Barbara Penny

Dragonetti 1700
O: Nippon Music Foundation
N&T: Formerly owned by Alfredo Campoli.
This violin is one of the very few instruments which still retain its original neck. Its name is taken from the owner, Domenico Dragonetti (1763-1846), who was an Italian virtuoso double bass player. Dragonetti formed a large collection of double basses, violins, cellos, harps and guitars. Just prior to the Foundation’s acquisition, this violin was played by the renowned violinist, Frank Peter Zimmerman (1965- ) throughout the world.

Jupiter 1700
O: Giovanni Battista Viotti;

Taft ex-Emil Heermann 1700
O: Canada Council for the Arts
N&T: on loan to Renée-Paule Gauthier

Dushkin 1701
N&T: on loan to Dennis Kim, concertmaster, Seoul Philharmonic Orchestra

Markees 1701
O: Music Chamber

Irish 1702
O: Pohjola Bank Art Foundation, Finland
N&T: on loan to Antti Tikkanen

Conte de Fontana; ex-Oistrach 1702
O: David Oistrakh (1953-1963); Riccardo Brengola; Pro Canale Foundation
N&T: Oistrakh’s first violin; on loan to Mariana Sirbu

Lukens; Edler Voicu 1702
O: A.W. Lukens; Jon Voicu; Romania Culture Ministry
N&T: on loan to Alexandru Tomescu through 2012

King Maximilian Joseph 1702

Lyall 1702

Antonio Stradivari 1703
O: Bundesrepublik Deutschland
N&T: on exhibit at Musikinstrumentenmuseum, Berlin

La Rouse Boughton 1703
O: Österreichische Nationalbank
N&T: on loan to Boris Kuschnir of the Kopelman Quartet

Lord Newlands 1702
O: Nippon Music Foundation
N&T: on loan to Toru Yasunaga
This violin was named after the owner, Lord Newlands (1890-1929), who treasured it throughout his life. While this violin was in the care of W.E.Hill & Sons of London between 1964 and 1982, it was exhibited at the CINOA Exhibit of Bath in 1973 as the most outstanding violin in the Hill Collection. According to the world virtuoso violinist Isaac Stern (1920-2001) who once played this violin, “Lord Newlands” has the same power as his “del Gesu” violins.

Allegretti 1703

Alsager 1703

Lady Harmsworth 1703
O: Paul Bartel
N&T: on loan to Kristof Barati brokered by the Stradivari Society

Maj 2010 – Helsingborgs Symfoniorkester. Kvällens solist var Kristof Barati som spelade Paganinis violinkonsert nr 5 a-moll. Grymt skicklig violinist och vilket ljud i hans fiol. Han spelade på en Stradivarius som kallas Lady Harmsworth

Emiliani 1703
O: Anne-Sophie Mutter

ex-Foulis 1703
N&T: on loan to Karen Gomyo

Betts 1704
O: U.S. Library of Congress
N&T: Presented by Gertrude Clarke Whittall

Sleeping Beauty 1704
O: L-Bank Baden-Wurttemberg
N&T: on loan to Isabelle Faust. One of the few Stradivari violins to have retained original neck.

ex-Marsick; ex-Oistrach 1705
O: David Oistrach
N&T: acquired in trade by Oistrach for the 1702 Conte di Fontana

ex-Tadolini 1706
O: The collection of Mr & Mrs Rin Kei Mei

ex-Brüstlein 1707
O: Österreichische Nationalbank

La Cathédrale 1707

Hammer 1707
O: Christian Hammer (collector)
N&T: sold at Christie’s New York on 16 May 2006 for a record US$3,544,000 (€2,765,080) after five minutes of bidding

The Hammer Stradivarius violin, measures 36cm and bears the label inside:. Dating from 1707, It was made during Stradivari’s ‘golden’ period. The Hammer was so called as it was once owned by a Swedish collector Christian Hammer who is the first recorded owner. Latterly it found its way the United States and into the ownership of a music teacher, Bernard Sinsheimer but in 1992, it was acquired by a Japanese oil company.

Burstein; Bagshawe 1708
N&T: owned by the Jacobs family, loaned to Jeff Thayer, San Diego Symphony concertmaster

Huggins 1708
O: Nippon Music Foundation
N&T: The name of this violin is taken from the ownership by William Huggins (1824-1910), a well-known English astronomer in the 1880s. Since 1997, this violin has been slated to the first-prize winner of The Queen Elisabeth International Music Competition in Belgium for four years until the next competition takes place. The winners of the previous Competitions are Nikolaj Znaider of Denmark (1997), Baiba Skride of Latvia (2001), Sergey Khachatryan of Armenia (2005), Ray Chen of Australia (2009).

Ruby 1708
N&T: on loan to Chen Xi brokered by the Stradivari Society

Strauss 1708
N&T: on loan to Chee-Yun brokered by the Stradivari Society

Greffuhle 1709
N&T: Donated to the Smithsonian Institution in 1997 by Herbert R. Axelrod. Now part of the Axelrod quartet.

Berlin Hochschule 1709

Hammerle; ex-Adler 1709
O: Österreichische Nationalbank
N&T: on loan to Werner Hink

Ernst 1709
N&T: on loan to Zsigmondy Dénes through 2003

Engleman 1709
O: Nippon Music Foundation
N&T: on loan to Lisa Batiashvili
This violin was once owned by the family of a naval officer Commander Young until his death in the World War II. The Young family had retained possession of the violin for almost 150 years, which is reflected in its superior condition. Nippon Music Foundation acquired this violin from an American amateur violinist and collector Ephraim Engleman, hence the name “Engleman”.

King Maximilian; Unico 1709
O: Axel Springer Foundation
N&T: on loan to Michel Schwalbé, concert master of the Berlin Philharmonic (1966-1986); reported stolen in 1999

Viotti; ex-Bruce 1709
O: Royal Academy of Music
N&T: purchased in 2005 for GB£3.5 million

Marie Hall 1709
O: Giovanni Battista Viotti; The Chi-Mei Collection
N&T: named after the violinist, Marie Hall

ex-Kempner 1709
N&T: on loan to Soovin Kim

Camposelice 1710
O: Nippon Music Foundation
N&T: on loan to Kyoko Takezawa
The name of this violin is derived from an owner in France in the 1880s by the name of Duke of Camposelice, who was a well-known Stradivarius collector. In 1894, the violin was sold to Mrs. Jack Gardner, who founded the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in Boston. Mrs. Gardner presented the violin to Martin Loeffler, composer and violinist, who played and kept it from 1894 to 1928. In 1937, this violin was exhibited at the prestigious Cremona Exhibition by Dr. Kuhne who owned a collection of instruments. It was in the hands of a Belgian amateur player who kept it for over thirty years and it is from his heir that the Foundation acquired this instrument.

Lord Dunn-Raven 1710
O: Anne-Sophie Mutter

ex-Roederer 1710
N&T: on loan to David Grimal.

ex-Vieuxtemps 1710
N&T: on loan to Samuel Magad, concertmaster, Chicago Symphony Orchestra

the Lady Inchiquin 1711
O: previously owned by Fritz Kreisler
N&T: played by Frank Peter Zimmermann, a German banking company, WestLB AG, bought it for his use.

Earl of Plymouth; Kreisler 1711
O: Los Angeles Philharmonic
N&T: found in store room on the estate of the Earl of Plymouth along with The Messiah and Alard violins in 1925; purchased by Fritz Kreisler in 1928 and subsequently sold by him in 1946

Liegnitz 1711
N&T: previously owned by Szymon Goldberg

Le Brun 1712
O: Niccolò Paganini; Charles LeBrun; Otto Senn;
N&T: sold at Sotheby’s auction 13 November 2001

Karpilowsky 1712
O: Harry Solloway
N&T: missing: stolen in 1953 from Solloway’s residence in Los Angeles

Schreiber 1713

Antonio Stradivari 1713

Boissier 1713

Daniel 1713
N&T: on loan to Jhon Paul Reynols

Gibson; ex-Huberman 1713
O: Bronis?aw Huberman; Joshua Bell
N&T: stolen twice from Huberman

Lady Ley 1713
O: Stradivarius family
N&T: now bought by Jue Yao – Chinese violinist

Wirt 1713

Dolphin; Delfino 1714
O: Jascha Heifetz; Nippon Music Foundation
N&T: on loan to Akiko Suwanai
This violin is perhaps one of the most famous violins known today. It is recognized as one of the top three violins made by Stradivari along with 1715 “Alard” and 1716 “Messiah”. This instrument was once owned and played by the world famous virtuoso Jascha Heifetz (1900-1987). The owner in the late 1800s, George Hart, who was an instrument dealer in London, named the violin “Dolphin” as its striking appearance and colour of its back reminded him of a dolphin.

Soil 1714
O: Amédée Soil; Yehudi Menuhin; Itzhak Perlman
N&T: Subject of the Quest “Agatha’s Song” in the video game Fallout 3.

ex-Berou; ex-Thibaud 1714

Le Maurien 1714
N&T: missing: stolen 2002

Leonora Jackson 1714

Sinsheimer; General Kyd; Perlman 1714
O: Itzhak Perlman, David L. Fulton

Smith-Quersin 1714
O: Österreichische Nationalbank
N&T: on loan to Rainer Honeck

Alard-Baron Knoop 1715

Baron Knoop; ex-Bevan 1715

ex-Bazzini 1715

Cremonese; ex-Harold, Joseph Joachim 1715
O: Municipality of Cremona

Duke of Cambridge; Ex-Pierre Rode 1715
O: NPO “Yellow Angel”
N&T: on loan to Ryu Goto

Joachim 1715
O: Nippon Music Foundation
N&T: on loan to Sayaka Shoji
This is one of the five 1715 violins once owned by the famed Hungarian violinist, Joseph Joachim (1831-1907). This violin was later bequeathed to Joachim’s great-niece Adela d’Aranyi, who was a violinist and a pupil of Joachim. Therefore, the violin is also known as “Joachim-Aranyi”. This violin had since remained in the same family until Nippon Music Foundation acquired the instrument.

Lipinski 1715
N&T: on loan to Milwaukee Symphony Orchestra concertmaster, Frank Almond

2014 Theft: On January 27, 2014, a Monday, at around 10:20 pm (22:20 CST), Almond was assaulted with a stun gun and the violin, along with two bows, were stolen during an armed robbery in a parking lot in the rear of Wisconsin Lutheran College on W. Wisconsin Ave. Almond had just performed at Wisconsin Lutheran as part of his “Frankly Music” series.
On 31 January 2014, a US$100,000 reward was announced for the return of the violin. Milwaukee police worked with international police organizations on recovery efforts. The original getaway vehicle and violin case, were both found a short time after the original attack, which appeared to have been carefully planned in advance
Three suspects were arrested by Milwaukee police on February 3rd;on February 6th, Milwaukee Police Chief Edward Flynn announced that the violin had been recovered.

ex-Marsick 1715
N&T: on loan to James Ehnes

Titian 1715
O: Jacob Lynam

Cessole 1716

Berthier 1716
O: Baron Vecsey de Vecse; Franco Gulli

Booth 1716
O: Nippon Music Foundation
N&T: on loan to Shunsuke Sato; formerly loaned to Arabella Steinbacher; formerly loaned to Julia Fischer
The name “Booth” comes from Mrs. Booth, an English lady. She purchased the violin about 1855 to form a quartet of Stradivari instruments for her two sons who showed considerable talent when young. In 1931, the violin passed into the hands of Mischa Mischakoff (1896-1981), a celebrated American violinist, and in 1961, the violin became a part of the Hottinger Collection in New York. The violin enjoys a very good reputation for excellent quality of tone and power and good state of preservation. The Foundation acquired this violin in 1999.

Colossus 1716
N&T: Stolen in 1998, missing ever since

Duranti 1716
O: Mariko Senju

Monasterio 1716
N&T: Cyrus Forough

Provigny 1716

Messiah-Salabue 1716
O: Ashmolean Museum Oxford
N&T: on exhibit at the Oxford Ashmolean Museum

ex-Windsor-Weinstein; Fite 1716
O: Canada Council for the Arts
N&T: on loan to Caroline Chéhadé

Baron Wittgenstein 1716
O: The Bulgarian state
N&T: on loan to Mincio Mincev since 1979

Gariel 1717

ex-Wieniawski 1717

Kochanski 1717
O: Pierre Amoyal
N&T: Stolen in 1987, recovered in 1991

Sasserno 1717
O: Nippon Music Foundation
N&T: on loan to Viviane Hagner
The name of this violin is taken from a French owner in 1845, Comte de Sasserno. In 1894, it was acquired by a violinist Otto Peiniger, who in turn sold it to Pickering Phipps, owner of a well-known brewery in England.In 1906, this violin was passed into the hands of an English industrialist John Summers and was well-preserved in his family for 93 years.

Viotti; ex-Rosé 1718
O: Giovanni Battista Viotti;
N&T: on loan to Volkhard Steude Österreichische Nationalbank

Chanot-Chardon 1718
O: Timothy Baker; Joshua Bell
N&T: shaped like a guitar; on loan to Simone Lamsma

Firebird; ex-Saint Exupéry 1718
O: Salvatore Accardo
N&T: name is taken from the colouration of the varnish and its brilliant sound.

Marquis de Riviere 1718
O: Daniel Majeske
N&T: played by Majeske while concertmaster of the Cleveland Orchestra from 1969-1993

San Lorenzo 1718
O: Georg Talbot
N&T: on loan to David Garrett, while his Guadagnini is repaired. Initial news reports erroneously stated it was the San Lorenzo he had smashed.

ex-Count Vieri 1718
O: The collection of Mr & Mrs Rin Kei Mei

Lauterbach 1719
O: Johann Christoph Lauterbach; J.B. Vuillaume; Charles Philippe Lafont

Madrileño 1720

von Beckerath 1720
O: Michael Antonello

Sinsheimer; Iselin 1721
N&T: reported stolen near Hanover, Germany in 2008; recovered in 2009.

Lady Blunt 1721
O: Paolo Stradivari.It has also been owned by several well-known collectors and experts including WE Hill & Son, Jean Baptiste Vuillaume, the Baron Johann Knoop and Sam Bloomfield.
N&T: Once owned by Lady Anne Blunt, the daughter of the Earl of Lovelace and granddaughter of the famous poet Byron, the instrument bears the name. The freshness of preservation is outstanding, deserving to rank with 1716 “Le Messiah” at the Ashmolean Museum, and 1690 “Tuscan”. The original beck and bass bar are preserved. The initials P.S. in the pegbox were inscribed by Paolo, Antonio Stradivari’s son.
2011, sold for £9.8m at charity auction (more…)

Jean-Marie Leclair 1721
O: Jean-Marie Leclair;
N&T: on loan to Guido Rimonda

Red Mendelssohn 1721
O: Mendelssohn Family; Elizabeth Pitcairn
N&T: inspiration for the 1998 film, The Red Violin

The Macmillan 1721
N&T: On Loan to Ray Chen through Young Concert Artists

Artot 1722

Jules Falk 1723
O: Viktoria Mullova

Jupiter; ex-Goding 1722
O: Nippon Music Foundation
N&T: on loan to Daishin Kashimoto; formerly Midori Goto
This violin has been in caring hands who appreciated its quality, and therefore it is a well-preserved example of Stradivari’s work. It is believed that a great English collector James Goding named the violin “Jupiter” in the early 1800s. For a period of time, this instrument was performed by the world acclaimed Japanese violinist Midori Goto (1971- ).

Laub-Petschnikoff 1722

Elman 1722
O: Chi Mei Museum

Cádiz 1722
O: Joseph Fuchs
N&T: on loan to Jennifer Frautschi; named after the city of Cádiz, Spain.

Kiesewetter; “Ex Keisewetter” 1723
O: Clement and Karen Arrison
N&T: on loan to Philippe Quint brokered by the Stradivari Society. Left by Quint in taxi on 21 April 2008, and recovered the following day.

Earl Spencer 1723
N&T: on loan to Nicola Benedetti

Le Sarasate 1724
O: Musée de la Musique, Paris
N&T: bequeathed to the Conservatory by Pablo de Sarasate

Brancaccio 1725
O: Destroyed in an allied air raid on Berlin.
N&T: owned by Carl Flesch, until 1928 where it was sold to Franz von Mendelssohn, banker and amateur violinist.

Chaconne 1725
O: Österreichische Nationalbank
N&T: on loan to Rainer Küchel

Leonardo da Vinci 1725
O: Da Vinci family

Wilhelmj 1725
O: Nippon Music Foundation
N&T: on loan to Baiba Skride;
The name of this violin is derived from a German violinist August Wilhelmj (1845-1908), who came to possess this instrument in 1866. This violin was Wilhelmj’s favorite among many precious violins he owned. After 30 years of playing this instrument, Wilhelmj sold this violin to his pupil in America as he made the decision to “quit when at my best”.

Greville; Kreisler; Adams 1726
O: Fritz Kreisler;Baron Deurbroucq (The Hague)(1870);Robert Crawford (Edinburgh);W.E. Hill & Sons (1902);

Baron Deurbroucq 1727
O: Hans Wessely (1903-1926);David D. Walton (Boston) (1926);Emil Herrmann (19??-1945);Fredell Lack (1945-present)

Barrere 1727
N&T: on loan to Janine Jansen brokered by the Stradivari Society

Davidoff-Morini 1727
N&T: Stolen in 1995, missing ever since

ex-General Dupont 1727
O: Arthur Grumiaux
N&T: on loan to Jennifer Koh

Holroyd 1727

Kreutzer 1727
O: Maxim Vengerov
N&T: one of four Stradivari violins with the sobriquet Kreutzer (1701, 1720, 1731)

Ex Reynier” or “Le Reynier”; Hart; ex-Francescatti 1727
O: Societe LVMH (Moet Hennessey Louis Vuitton) since 1993 or1994; Salvatore Accardo.
N&T: Named after Leon Reynier who won at the Concervatoire de Paris in 1847. Has been lent to Maxim Vengerov.

Paganini-Comte Cozio di Salabue 1727
O: Nippon Music Foundation
N&T: 1727 violin (1st violin), the Paganini-Desaint violin of 1680 (2nd violin), the Paganini-Mendelssohn viola of 1731, the Paganini-Ladenburg cello of 1736. This internationally renowned quartet is one of Stradivari’s six sets of quartet known to exist today. It was once owned and played by the Italian virtuoso violinist and composer, Niccolo Paganini (1782-1840), hence the name “Paganini Quartet”. It is a known fact that Paganini was especially impressed with the sound quality of the viola that he commissioned a French composer Hector Berlioz (1803-1869) to write a piece for viola and orchestra. As a result, the symphony Harold in Italy was composed for this viola. Nippon Music Foundation acquired this set of quartet from the Corcoran Gallery of Arts in Washington D.C. in 1994. The Foundation only loans these four instruments as a set of quartet and they are currently on loan to the Tokyo String Quartet (on loan to Martin Beaver)

Halphen 1727
O: Angelika Prokopp Private Foundation
N&T: on loan to Eckhard Seifert

Vesuvius 1727
O: Antonio Brosa Remo Lauricella Town of Cremona

A. J. Fletcher; Red Cross Knight 1728
O: A. J. Fletcher Foundation
N&T: on loan to Nicholas Kitchen of the Borromeo String Quartet; the instrument was made by Omobono Stradivarius

Artot-Alard 1728
O: Endre Balogh
N&T: a bench copy of this instrument was produced in 1996 by Gregg Alf and Joseph Curtin, using modern materials and methods; Balogh performs on both the 1728 original and the replica.

Dragonetti; Milanollo 1728
O: Giovanni Battista Viotti
N&T: on loan to Corey Cerovsek

Perkins 1728
O: Los Angeles Philharmonic
N&T: named after Frederick Perkins, formerly owned by Luigi Boccherini

Benny 1729
O: Jack Benny; Los Angeles Philharmonic
N&T: bequeathed to the Los Angeles Philharmonic by Jack Benny

Solomon, ex-Lambert 1729
O: Murray Lambert; Seymour Solomon
N&T: sold at Christie’s, New York for US$2,728,000 (€2,040,000)

Innes 1729
N&T: on loan to Eugen Sarbu; previously loaned to Wieniawski

Guarneri 1729
O: Canada Council for the Arts
N&T: on loan to Nikki Chooi http://www.canadacouncil.ca/prizes/musical_instrument_bank/MIB2009/vq128971674970144290.htm

Royal Spanish 1730
O: Anne Akiko Meyers
N&T: once owned by the King of Spain

Lady Jeanne 1731
O: Donald Kahn Foundation
N&T: on loan to Benjamin Schmid

Garcin 1731
O: Jules Garcin; Sidney Harth

Heifetz-Piel 1731
O: Rudolph Piel; Jascha Heifetz

Baillot 1732
O: Fondazione Casa di Risparmio
N&T: lent to Giuliano Carmignola for the DG recording of Vivaldi: Concertos for Two Violins

Duke of Alcantara 1732
O: an obscure Spanish nobleman described as an aide-de-camp of King Don Carlos; UCLA
N&T: Genevieve Vedder donated the instrument to the University of California at Los Angeles’ (UCLA) music department in the 1960s. In 1967, the instrument was on loan to David Margetts. Whether it was left on the roof of his car or stolen is uncertain, but for 27 years the violin was considered missing until it was recovered from an amateur violinist who claimed to have found it on a freeway. A settlement was made and the Stradivarius was returned to UCLA in 1995

Herkules 1732
O: Eugène Ysaÿe
N&T: missing: stolen in Russia in 1908

Red Diamond 1732
O: Louis Von Spencer IV

Tom Taylor 1732
N&T: previously loaned to Joshua Bell

Des Rosiers 1733
O: Angèle Dubeau

Huberman; Kreisler 1733
O: Bronislaw Huberman; Fritz Kreisler

Khevenhüller 1733
O: Yehudi Menuhin

Rode 1733

Ames 1734
N&T: missing: stolen in 1981

Baron Feilitzsch; Heermann 1734
O: Baron Feilitzsch; Hugo Heerman; Gidon Kremer

Habeneck 1734
O: Royal Academy of Music

Herkules; Ysaye; ex-Szeryng; King David 1734
O: Eugène Ysaÿe; Charles Münch; Henryk Szeryng; State of Israel

Lord Amherst of Hackney 1734
O: Fritz Kreisler

Lamoureux; ex Zimbalist 1735
N&T: missing: stolen

Muntz 1736
O: Nippon Music Foundation
N&T: on loan to Arabella Steinbacher
The label attached to this instrument bears an inscription, “92 years old”, handwritten by Stradivari himself. It has a first class reputation for its excellent condition and tonal quality. This violin takes its name from a famous collector and amateur violinist, H.M.Muntz of Birmingham, England, who owned this violin in the late 1800s. This is one of the last instruments made by Stradivari, who passed away in 1737. 

ex.Roussy 1736
O: Chisako Takashima

Comte d’Amaille 1737

Lord Norton 1737

Chant du Cygne; Swan Song 1737
O: Ivry Gitlis

Notes:

=Violin Name (Many Strad violins have a code name or sobriquet)
O =Owner
N&T (Notes and Trivia – Some interesting facts about the instruments)

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